General Defination of Virus, Trojan, Malware, Rookit, Exploits, Wabbit, Backdoor

Some general definations are here to better understand the differance between some harmful n unwanted names in any PC. Reed to better understand them

Do you have a Virus?

Are you infested with pop-up ads, new toolbars in your browser, is your home page changed or are you bombarded with irritating spam? Perhaps your computer is running very slow or worst, you can't get on the internet. If so, your PC is most likely infected with adware, anti adware, spyware, spybot, trojans, viruses or another internet parasite. Viruses won't go away anytime soon! More than 60,000 viruses have been identified, and new viruses are created every day, according to the International Computer Security Association.

What is a Trojan?

A Trojan is malware that performs unexpected or unauthorized, often malicious,
actions. The main difference between a Trojan and a virus is the inability to
replicate. Trojans cause damage, unexpected system behavior, and compromise the security of systems, but do not replicate. If it replicates, then it should be
classified as a virus. A Trojan, coined from Greek mythology's Trojan horse,
typically comes in good packaging but has some hidden malicious intent within its code. When a Trojan is executed users will likely experience unwanted system problems in operation, and sometimes loss of valuable data.

What is Malware?

Malware, short for malicious software, refers to any malicious or unexpected program or code such as viruses, and trojans. What is Spyware? Spyware is short for advertising supported software (Adware). Software that sends information about your internet habits back to the computer from which it's launched. Spyware is often built into free downloads and works in the background without a user's knowledge .Since it doesn't record an individual's personal information, it's often used to create marketing profiles based on surfing habits. Why is it called "Spyware"? While this may be a great concept, the downside is that the advertising companies also install additional tracking software on your system, which is continuously sending your tracking information over the internet. While according to the privacy policies of the companies, there will be no sensitive or identifying data collected from your system and you shall remain anonymous, it still remains the fact, that you have a "live" server sitting on your PC that is sending information about you and your surfing habits to a remote location.

What is a Rootkit?

A Rootkit is the hardest virus to detect. It is designed to hide in the computers
core processes making it difficult to detect. It often requires a complete wiping of
the hard drive and reinstalling the original operating system. What is a Dialer?
Dialers can be costly. A black hat hacker can use a dialer to dial those expensive
telephone numbers in small countries or to transmit stolen data.

What are Exploits?

Exploits are what keeps Bill Gates and Microsoft up late at night. Hackers try to
find flaws in Windows to bypass security so they can get access to your computer.

Service Pact 2 is an example of a patch that is used to correct a flaw in Windows. Is

Spyware illegal? Even though the name may indicate so, spyware is not an illegal type of software in any way. However there are certain issues that a privacy oriented user may object to and therefore prefer not to use the product. This usually involves the tracking and sending of data and statistics via a server installed on the user's PC and the use of your Internet connection in the background. These tools are perfectly legal in most places, but, just like an ordinary tape recorder, if they are abused, they can seriously violate your privacy.

What's the hype about?

While legitimate adware companies will disclose the nature of data that is collected and transmitted in their privacy statement, there is almost no way for the user to actually control what data is being sent. The fact is that the technology is in theory capable of sending much more than just banner statistics - and this is why many people feel uncomfortable with the idea. When was the last time you read a privacy statement on a web site? Millions of people are using advertising supported "spyware" products and could not care less about the privacy hype, in fact some "Spyware" programs are among the most popular downloads on the Internet. Spyware is often bundled with free software and games. There are also many PC surveillance tools that allow the user to monitor all kinds of activity on a computer, ranging from keystroke capture, keyloggers, snapshots, email logging, chat logging and just about everything else. These tools are often designed for parents, businesses and similar environments, but can be easily abused if they are installed on your computer without your knowledge.

What is a Virus?

A computer virus is a program of executable code that has the ability to replicate.
Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult
to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file and are
spread as files that are copied and sent from individual to individual. Some computer viruses can also destroy files, reformat your hard drive, or cause other damage. If the virus does not contain a damage routine, it can cause trouble by consuming storage space and memory, and degrading the overall performance and resources of your computer. Several years ago most viruses spread primarily via floppy disk, but the Internet has introduced new virus distribution mechanisms. With email now used as an essential business communication tool, viruses are spreading faster than ever. Viruses attached to email messages can infect an network or your computer in minutes, costing companies millions of dollars annually in lost productivity and virus extraction expenses.

What is a Wabbit?

Wabbit's are rare. Oddly enough they don't do much unless it's on your computer. They don't try to spread to other computers, but they can be devastating to your computer.

What is a Backdoor?

Backdoors are a lot like Trojans and worms, except they open a backdoor to your
computer allowing hackers into your computer to load viruses or to send spam through your computer.

The Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing (CRULP)

The Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing (CRULP) is first of its kind in Pakistan. The Center’s main objective is to conduct research for the evolution of computational models of Urdu and Pakistan’s other regional languages. The research at CRULP is carried within the context of projects, each having a well defined list of deliverables. Current projects being conducted at CRULP are:

PAN Localization Project

This project is an initiative of International Development Research Center (IDRC), Canada and the Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing (CRULP). The Objective of this project is to build local language computing capacity in regional institutions of Asia. Phase II of PAN Localization project will research into challenges associated with digital literacy of end-users using the localized technology for communication and to produce local language content. The project will also continue to further mature the language technology in the target languages. This project is led by researchers at CRULP, NUCES. CRULP will be coordinating efforts across Asia through ICT researchers, practitioners, linguists and policymakers from government agencies, universities and the private sector. The countries (and languages) included in the second phase of the project are Afghanistan (Pashto), Bangladesh (Bangla), Bhutan (Dzongkha), Cambodia (Khmer), China (Tibetan), Laos (Lao), Mongolia (Mongolian), Nepal (Nepali), Pakistan (Urdu) and Sri Lanka (Sinhala, Tamil).

PAN Localization Pakistan Component

This is the Pakistan Country Component of the PAN Localization Project. This project consists of three main activities:
1. Urdu localization of open source software
2. Developing training material and imparting ICT literacy training for using selected localized open source software and
3. Evaluation of the imparted ICT literacy training.

PAN Localization Pakistan Component

Microsoft Vista Urdu Language Interface Pack

The main objective of this project is to develop a Language Interface Package (LIP) for Microsoft Windows Vista and Microsoft Office . This language pack will provide Urdu language interface for Microsoft's upcoming Vista operating system. It will also enable the general masses to use Microsoft Windows and Microsoft Office in Urdu language, who cannot understand English. For this purpose, the scope of the project includes translation of 300,000 English words in Urdu. Microsoft provides the translation tools (i.e. LocStudio) and translation files (i.e. *.edb). The translation is done at CRULP end. This project is sponsored by Microsoft Corporation, USA.

Lexicon for Urdu Language

This project aims to develop a lexicon for Urdu language for Nokia. This lexicon will be used for future development of speech and language technology. This project includes the development of a lexicon of commonly used words in Urdu, some domain specific words and proper nouns. The lexicon will also contain basic grammatical and pronunciation information of these words, and will provide almost complete corpus (and language) coverage. The lexicon will be the fundamental building block for other applications in script, speech and language technologies, to be developed in the future, including basic user services (e.g., SMS support, address book) to more advanced user assistance applications (e.g., text-to-speech, speech recognition, spoken language translation and handwriting recognition technologies). Nokia has already indicated that follow-up work on Urdu speech synthesis will be undertaken using this lexicon (based on unit selection technique, which CRULP has not yet done). This project is sponsored by Nokia Research, Beijing, China.

Urdu Localization Project

The Urdu localization project envisages bringing the benefits of information age to vast majority of Pakistan which are not literate in English, the lingua franca of Internet, and thus are deprived of the immense possibilities offered by this revolution. It will also usher the Urdu language, the national language of Pakistan spoken and understood by masses, to the information age.
Urdu Localization Project

Urdu Component Development

SpellChecker, Collation and Normalization are basic language utilities. The purpose of this project is to provide APIs for these utilities for Urdu language. SpellChecker utility will check words for spelling errors and will suggest a ranked list of words if a spelling error is found. Collation utility will provide a language sensitive comparison of two strings with respect to sorting. Normalization is a process to convert multiple equivalent representations of data to consistent underlying normal forms.

Urdu Components

Urdu Components
Text to Speech
Urdu Spell Checker Utility v1.0 Urdu Text to Speech System
Urdu Collation Utility v1.0
Urdu Normalization Utility v1.0
Urdu POS Tagger Machine Translation
Annotator English to Urdu Machine Translation System
Urdu Part of Speech Tagset
Statistical Part of Speech Tagger for Urdu v1.0
IPA to SAMPA Morphological Analyzer
Urdu Letters to IPA and IPA to SAMPA Urdu Finite-State Morphological Analyzer
Hindi to Urdu Transliterator

Urdu Localization Terminology Glossary

Urdu Localization Terminology Glossary

The Urdu Localization Terminology Glossary is the glossary being developed and used at CRULP by the Pan Localization Project Pakistan Country Component team for the localization of open source software. It is based on the Electronic Dictionary of Localization of Computer Applications (English-Urdu), 2005 by the Center of Excellence for Urdu Informatics, National Language Authority, Islamabad (Pakistan) . Other resources used in the development of this glossary include:

Existing localized open source software:
Mozilla Urdu Language Pack
OpenOffice, FireFox & Thunderbird (for Urdu-India)

Online technical terminology translations:
Urdu Word Bank
Urdu Dictionary

All major English to Urdu translation dictionaries have also been consulted in the process, e.g. Qaumi English-Urdu Dictionary published by National Language Authority of Pakistan.

For more details about the glossary, please see the localization process report.

The glossary is available online and also in the form of a tab delimited, utf-8 encoded text file. This glossary is updated regularly.

Online Urdu Localization Terminology Glossary
Urdu Localization Terminology Glossary (tab delimited, utf-8 encoded text file)
Updated: February 07, 2008.
License Details:

A major portion of this glossary is based on the Electronic Dictionary of Localization of Computer Applications (English-Urdu) developed by the National Language Authority. The complete glossary is available here but the part of the glossary that is derived from the NLA is under NLA copyrights, and terminology translations that have been added by our team are released under the Creative Commons License.

The tags "NLA" and "EXT" are used in both the released forms to differentiate between translations taken from the NLA (NLA) dictionary and those added by the team (EXT).

Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing

Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing (CRULP) is pleased to release Urdu-Nepali-English Parallel Corpus. 29/09/2008

Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing is pleased to announce workshop on First Internationalized Domain Name for Pakistani Languages. 19/04/2008

Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing is pleased to release the source code (VOLT project) of Nafees Tahreer Naskh. 18/03/2008

Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing is pleased to release Urdu Games . 04/03/2008

Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing carried out the identification of Urdu Closed Class Words List to support further localised researches. 02/03/2008

Open Source Software Urdu Localization: Urdu Localization Terminology Glossary updated. 07/02/2008

Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing is pleased to release the source code (VOLT project) of Nafees Fonts. 08/11/2007

Urdu Components Development: Applications and Source Code of Urdu Collation, Urdu Normalization and Urdu SpellChecker Utilities are released. 01/11/2007

Open Source Software Urdu Localization: Windows Installer for Urdu NVu released. 01/11/2007

Urdu Localization: Updated version of Phonetic Keyboard released. 23/10/2007

Open Source Software Urdu Localization: SeaMonkey Urdu Language Pack released. 10/10/2007

Center for Research in Urdu Language Processing is pleased to announce beta release of character based Nafees Riqa OpenType font. 05/09/2007

Conference on Language and Technology (CLT07) held at Bara Gali Campus, University of Peshawar, from 7-11 August, 2007. CRULP collaborated for the organization of workshop.